Estonia belongs to the mixed forest sub-region of the Atlantic continental region of the temperate zone and lies in the transition zone between maritime and continental climates. Summers are moderately warm (the mean temperature in July is 16 - 17°C) and winters are moderately cold (the mean temperature in February is between -2.5 and -7°C). The highest daily temperature ever recorded is 35.6°C and the lowest -43.5°C. Mean annual precipitation is 550-700 mm, ranging from 520 mm on some islands to almost 750 mm in the upland. Seasonal variation in precipitation is similar throughout the country, the driest months being February and March. Precipitation gradually increases until July and August, after which it decreases towards winter and spring.
- The warming trend of the winter, especially January, has been observed since the middle of the last century.
- The warming trend of the average annual temperature of 0.2 - 0.3°C per decade has been observed.
- The increase in the average annual precipitation in the second half of the 20th century has been significant in Estonia. The ice and snow cover period has shortened.
- There has been a negative trend in duration of snow cover in the period of 1961 - 2002, in 40 years the average snow cover has decreased by 25.9 days.
This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.