Current Climate

Climatology

This page presents Cuba's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit.  Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for  specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.

Observed, historical data is produced by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia. Data is presented at a 0.5º x 0.5º (50km x 50km) resolution.

 

The climate is defined as tropical, seasonally humid, with maritime influence and semi-continental features. Rainy period runs from May to October. It is characterized by the influence of the North Atlantic Anticyclone, with few variations of the weather. Dry season extends from November to April. The mean annual temperature varies from 26°C in the plains to 24°C, although locally, on the coasts and mountains of the central and eastern region, they may be larger and smaller, respectively. Average maximum temperature fluctuates between 27°C and 32°C, and the average minimum temperature between 17°C and 23°C. In the tropical zone, the daily thermal oscillation is greater than the annual one. Average annual precipitation is 1,335 mm, of which 1,003 mm are recorded between May and October, and 332 mm from November to April.

Temperature

  • The mean annual temperature increased by 1.0°C and the mean annual minimum temperature by 2.0°C in the period 1951 – 2017.
  • Each of the last three decades have been warmer than all the previous ones.
  • In the period 1980-2017, warmer periods have increased in frequency and colder periods have decreased in frequency.

Precipitation

  • Stable pattern of precipitation has been observed in recent decades.
  • Although the number of droughts has decreased, three of the most significant drought events have occurred in this century (2003-2005, 2009-2010, and 2014-2015).
  • Average annual and seasonal cloud cover decreased in Cuba during 1976 – 2017 period. The decrease is most notable in the short period of rain experienced in the western region.
  • Increasing trend of hurricanes has been observed since 1971, with strong intense hurricane activity since 2001.

This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.