Historical Hazards

Bhutan’s is exposed to earthquakes, flooding, wildfire, landslides, Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) and windstorms. The countries urban areas are vulnerable to urban flooding, and extreme heat in the south. According to historical data, flooding occurs most frequently and is responsible for the largest percentage of mortality (Preventionweb).  The country is exposed to earthquakes and has experienced twelve earthquakes, many magnitude 7.0 in the last half century including a 2009 earthquake that generated $97 million in losses and needs (GFDRR).  The majority of the country’s agricultural land and infrastructure is located along drainage basins that are highly vulnerable to flooding, particularly riverine flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains and glacial melt. Risk is concentrated in the center and north western regions of the country as well as Samtse province. The country also has high risk for wildfires, particularly in the center and southern portions of the country. Climate change could impact the impact the intensity and frequency of flooding, landslides, Glacial Lake  Outburst Floods, and windstorms while also increasing the risk of wildfire.

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.


Climate change is now recognized to have a significant impact on disaster management efforts and pose a significant threat to the efforts to meet the growing needs of the most vulnerable populations. The demands of disaster risk management are such that concise, clear, and reliable information is crucial. The information presented here offers insight into the frequency, impact and occurrence of natural hazards.