Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Vietnam.


Vietnam identifies gaps in institutional and policy arrangements, human resource capacity, and technology in its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. It also prioritizes adaptation measures for the 2021-2030 period, and underscores that state resources can only meet 30% of the adaptation needs. It determines that climate change adaptation must be linked to sustainable development and the transition towards a low-carbon economy.

Key Adaptation Policies & Reports

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Implement changes in sowing and cultivation practices, erosion control, and changes in cropping patterns.
  • Select crops that are better suited to a changing climate.
  •  Pay more attention to land and water management.
  • Agricultural incentives, insurance measures to mitigate risk, disaster and pest warning systems, and research in agricultural technology will also be needed to reduce vulnerability in the long term.
  • Identify and implement measures in energy use efficiency and conservation in order to mitigate the impacts of increased future demand.
  • Conduct studies to project future energy demand for various provinces.
  • Plan and design of energy infrastructure needs to be geared to handle potential changes in climatic and hydrological variables.
  • Focus on resilient structure design for energy and transportation infrastructure so that it is able to better withstand storm and flood risk.
  • Railway network infrastructure also needs to be strengthened.
  • Improve timber use efficiency as well as timber and non-timber processing technologies.
  • Introduce afforestation and reforestation programs.
  • Pay particular attention to the poverty reduction needs of communities living in upland forest areas.
  • Improve sustainable forest management.
  • Identify resilient plant and tree species.
  • Develop aquaculture plans for the country’s various coastal ecosystems on the basis of climate change assessments.
  • Introduce heat-tolerant varieties in aquafarming, and improve management capacities, particularly for aspects for coastal and marine planning that are impacted by climatic disasters.
  • Construct additional storm shelters for fishing ships, improve communication facilities on ships so that hazard warnings can be disseminated and offer better weather forecast bulletins to fishermen.

Gaps and Needs

  • Research focusing on adaptation options relevant for populations vulnerable to climate change due to their livelihoods. These include those reliant on forest-based livelihoods in the Mekong, Central Highlands and Northern Mountain regions; minorities with livelihoods based on agriculture in the Central Highlands and Northern Mountain regions; fishermen in the Central Coast; and migrants from rural areas and poor people in urban areas in the Mekong region.
  • Research (and dissemination to farmers) is needed on flood and drought tolerant crop species and improved production methods.
  • Research groups should have better access to real-time data, in order to refine predictions.
  • Identify areas in the country that have not yet been effectively included in adaptation planning and prioritize these for future adaptation efforts.
  • Forecasts and warning systems need to be improved for hazards such as flash floods and landslides.
  • Adaptation assessments, models, and tools do not provide sufficient information, particularly for cross-sectoral or inter-regional assessments.
  • There is insufficient capacity to assess the country’s technological needs for adaptation.
  • Zoning maps are needed to depict areas that are at risk from various natural hazards.
  • Delineate adaptation efforts both horizontally and vertically to better include different sectoral efforts and livelihood groups in the development of adaptation projects.
  • Disaster response needs to shift from being passive and damage-driven to proactive, with a focus on ex-ante measures. Incentives need to be provided to households and the private sector for purchasing disaster-related insurance.
  • Improved coordination is needed for emergency relief, damage recovery, and rehabilitation of hazard-struck areas.
  • Improved vehicle management is needed on rivers and at sea to reduce damage to pelagic fishing boats.
  • Construction planning needs to include better safety measures, particularly in industrial zones, tourist zones, the urban areas of coastal regions, and upland areas.
  • Increased spending on maintenance and extension of coastal and flood defenses is necessary, particularly for the Mekong River and Red River deltas, and their specifications should be adjusted to cope most cost-effectively with expected sea level rise. Ensuring mangrove health will result in lower costs.
  • More focused adaptation interventions on early warning systems, especially for extreme weather events and flash-floods; involving communities in the systems’ development; capacity building for local communities to use these systems; and overall education about climate change and disaster risk management.
  • Outreach and extension services are needed to better inform farmers of climate risk in the agriculture sector, and similar efforts are needed for the aquaculture sector.
  • There is lack of synchronized planning and coordination among ministries and sectors, and insufficient attention is given to the integration of natural hazard and climate risk issues within local and sectoral socio-economic development programs.
  • As Vietnam’s economy becomes increasingly dependent on industry, and less reliant on agriculture, ensuring that the implications of this transition are accounted for in adaptation planning—such as with respect to changes on land use, exploitation of natural resources, and agricultural and forest-based livelihoods.
  • Stringent regulations are needed to discourage construction in zones that are at-risk of inundation, flash floods, storms, sea surges, and landslides. Penalties need to be enforced for actions in contravention of existing environmental policies that could increase vulnerability, e.g., destruction of mangrove forests.