Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Tuvalu.


Key sectors targeted by Tuvalu’s Second National Communication to the UNFCCC (2015) for adaptation action include coastal protection, water resources, coral reefs and fisheries, food security, human health, and waste management. Adaptation options range from capacity building, research, and refinement of practices, to more dramatic interventions such as resettlement and emigration. In 2017 Tuvalu received financing of $39 million from the Green Climate Fund for coastal adaptation projects aiming to build resilience to sea-level rise. The Tuvalu Coastal Adaptation Project targets high vulnerability coastline where wave action drives erosion and inundation with ecosystem-based adaptations, beach nourishment and sea walls. The Tuvalu Climate Change Policy (2012) sets the country’s adaptation direction over the period 2012-2021, this strategy is reaffirmed in the National Strategy for Sustainable Development 2016 to 2020 (2016). In 2015 the Tuvalu Survival Fund was established expressly to finance immediate adaptation actions and in preparedness for response to natural hazards.

Key Adaptation Policies & Reports

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Development of salt tolerant crop varieties.
  • Aquaponic production systems which recycle nutrient-rich water through fish and organic vegetables.
  • Integrated farming practices and soil conservation practices.
  • Development of meteorological monitoring systems, early warning systems and rapid response protocols.
  • Increased community awareness and participation in water management and sanitation systems.
  • Improving affordability and access to water and sanitation services including via financial support.
  • Stronger enforcement of regulation on sand mining.
  • Planning and development control on islands and in coastal areas.
  • Ensuring special access arrangements for forced climate migrants.
  • Preparation of climate change migration and resettlement plans in a worst-case-scenario for every island .
  • Research by the United Nations University on Climate Change and Migration in Tuvalu (2016) recommends that migration, including international migration, be facilitated as remittance payments can help households adopt adaptive measures.
  • Development of coordinated governance and management systems for fisheries management and management of arrivals of new species.
  • Restoration of coral reefs and development of artificial reefs.
  • Stronger enforcement on mining of coral reefs for aggregates.

Gaps and Needs

  • Research is needed to develop downscaled data suitable to analyze climate change impacts across Tuvalu’s different islands.
  • Research is required on the health impacts of climate change in the region, particularly on vector and water-borne diseases.
  • Longitudinal data to monitor change at the site, island, and sector specific level is missing.
  • Some historical data was not stored in electronic format and was subsequently lost. Better storage, collation and updating processes for data management are needed.
  • A centralized information management system is required for cross-governmental collation of legislation, policy, projects and communications.
  • Capacity building for Tuvalu’s Island Disaster Committees.
  • Improve Tuvalu’s national capacity to access international climate finance mechanisms.
  • Access to technology transfer is inhibited by cost issues and a lack of technical capacity to install, maintain and repair technologies.
  • Strengthening of central government capacity in climate change science, adaptation and mitigation, including meteorological observation, coastal protection, spatial mapping, early warning systems, and environmental and social impact assessment.