Country

Turkey

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Turkey.

Current Climate Climatology

This page presents Turkey's climate context for the current climatology, 1991-2020, derived from observed, historical data. Information should be used to build a strong understanding of current climate conditions in order to appreciate future climate scenarios and projected change. You can visualize data for the current climatology through spatial variation, the seasonal cycle, or as a time series. Analysis is available for both annual and seasonal data. Data presentation defaults to national-scale aggregation, however sub-national data aggregations can be accessed by clicking within a country, on a sub-national unit.  Other historical climatologies can be selected from the Time Period dropdown list. Data for  specific coordinates can be downloaded for in the Data Download page.

Observed, historical data is produced by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia. Data is presented at a 0.5º x 0.5º (50km x 50km) resolution.

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Climate Data Historical

Turkey is situated between the subtropical zone and temperate zone. The climate zones observed in Turkey are the Mediterranean Climate where summers are hot and dry and the winters are mild and rainy; the Black Sea Climate where summers are cool and winters are warm in the coastal area and snowy and cold at the higher parts; the Terrestrial Climate where temperature differences between summer and winter and day and night are large, and the Marmara Climate showing the characteristics of a climate transition between the Terrestrial, Black Sea and Mediterranean climates. Turkey receives most of its rainfall in winter and spring. In summer, the amount of precipitation decreases while the temperature and evaporation increases. Annual long-term mean precipitation is 574 mm. Meanwhile, the number of meteorological extreme events has increased particularly since 2000 (1981 – 2017).

Temperature

  • An upward trend in annual temperature has been observed from 1994 onwards, except for 1997 and 2011. 2010 was the warmest year.
  • The average temperature increased from 13.2°C in 1971 – 2000 period to 13.5°C between 1981 and 2010.

Precipitation

  • Irregular precipitation was experienced from 1981 – 2017.
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