Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Turkey.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Turkey's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Turkey's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Turkey is located between 36°-42° north latitude and 26°- 45° east longitude in the Northern Hemisphere. The country shares borders with Bulgaria and Greece in the west, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan/Nakhichevan and Iran in the east and Iraq and Syria in the south. The coastal border of the peninsula surrounded by three sides with the Black Sea in the north, the Aegean Sea in the west and Mediterranean in the south. Turkey’s total surface area is 785,347 km2 with agricultural lands accounting for 31.1% of the country’s land use. According to Turkey Statistical Institute’s data, Turkey’s population reached 77.70 million as of 2014 and is estimated to reach about 93.50 million in 2050. Turkey’s GDP is estimated at $851 US billion, with a GDP per capita of US $11,000 (2015). Turkey’s GDP is composed of agriculture 9.54%, industry 27.51% and services 62.95%.

Although Turkey is located between mid-latitude climate zone and subtropical climate zone, it has many climate zones due to its different topographical characteristics (Turkey’s Sixth National Communication to the UNFCCC, 2016). The climate zones observed in Turkey are the Mediterranean Climate where summers are hot and dry and the winters are mild and rainy; the Black Sea Climate where summers are cool and winters are warm in the coastal area and snowy and cold at the higher parts; the Terrestrial Climate where temperature differences between summer and winter and day and night are large, and the Marmara Climate showing the characteristics of a climate transition between the Terrestrial, Black Sea and Mediterranean climates. In Turkey, the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization is the focal point to UNFCCC and is responsible for the establishment and implementation of the environmental policies.