Country

Turkey

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Turkey.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Turkey's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Turkey's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.


Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF
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Turkey is located between 36°to 42° N latitude and 26° to 45° E longitude in the Northern Hemisphere. The country shares borders with Bulgaria and Greece in the west, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan/Nakhichevan and Iran in the east and Iraq and Syria in the south. The coastal border of the peninsula surrounded by three sides with the Black Sea in the north, the Aegean Sea in the west and Mediterranean in the south. Turkey’s total surface area is 785,347 km2 with agricultural lands accounting for 31.1% of the country’s land use. Turkey’s population is approximately 84.3 million (2020) people, of which 87.9% live in urban areas and 12.1% live in rural areas. As an upper-middle income country, Turkey’s economy is driven by its agriculture, industry, and services sectors, including tourism. Turkey is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change from extreme weather events and increase in temperature. These have consequences on the country’s terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems and increases the overall strain on the environment.