Timor Leste

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Timor Leste.

Impacts Water

Timor-Leste has a total of 29 main river systems. All rivers are short and fast-flowing, taking water efficiently to the lowlands and into the sea, especially during the rainy season. Given the temporal variations in rainfall and the low capacity of upland areas to hold water, very few rivers flow all year round. Most are ephemeral, but with significant under bed flows in the lower reaches. The total internal renewable water resources are estimated at 8.215 km3 per year. Timor-Leste has only one large freshwater lake, Lake Ira Lalaru, which is a large, shallow and seasonally fluctuating lake. Groundwater is an important source of water for domestic use across the country, especially in upland and urban areas, but little is known about the quantity and quality of the resources.  The agricultural sector consumes the majority of the country’s water.

This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.