Tanzania, United Republic of

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Tanzania, United Republic of.


Overall risks from climate-related impacts are evaluated based on the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability of communities (susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to adapt), and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes -including adaptation and mitigation actions- are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014).

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.


Key Vulnerabilities

  • Droughts frequently occur in Tanzania and with devastating impacts on their economy, agricultural output, food security, and hydro-power generation. The droughts that occurred during 2000-2002 affected several million Tanzanians, and in 2004/2005 droughts caused poor crop yields, which undermined efforts to alleviate poverty and food insecurity.
  • Floods are a main natural hazard that Tanzania experiences on a regular basis. Heavy rainfall and sea level rise are contributing factors to floods within the country and can affect many people, like in 2002, and have devastating impacts on agriculture, food security, health, groundwater supplies, hydro-power generation, and the economy.
  • In Tanzania, malaria has expanded into regions that have historically been unaffected (e.g. Tanga, Kilimanjaro, and Arusha Highlands).
  • Sea level rise has impacted the coast of Tanzania in the district of Bagamoyo in recent years.
  • Rising seas threaten coastal ecosystems (e.g. mangroves), groundwater resources, coastal infrastructure, and other adverse socioeconomic effects.
  • Changing temperature and precipitation patterns will likely cause certain diseases to increase in occurrence as well as change their spatio-temporal distribution. It is projected that highland areas in East Africa will experience an increase in malaria epidemics as a result of climate change.
  • Additionally, water related diseases (e.g. cholera and schistosomiasis) are expected to see an uptick in outbreaks in the future.
  • Around 25% of the Tanzanian population lives along the mainland coast, which means a good proportion of the population is susceptible to accelerated sea level rise.
  • Reducing Tanzanians’ vulnerability to such extreme climate events will depend on adaptation activities that develop early warning systems, adopt drought tolerant seed varieties, scale up renewable energy generation, and incorporate emergency planning and response efforts.
  • Reducing the risk posed by these disasters are aimed at establishing a disaster planning framework, establishing rural areas development plans, relocation of vulnerable communities, improving building codes, encouraging terracing and contour farming, and developing an early warning system for flood events.
  • Measures to decrease the risks posed to public health by a changing climate are focused on adaptation strategies such as strengthening the malaria control program, developing an early warning system, establishing a climate and health collaboration and synthesis program, and providing equipment to health centers to aid in early diagnosis.
  • In order to cope with rising sea levels, Tanzania has targeted a number of strategies to reduce the risk posed by advancing seas, some of these include desalination of water; relocation of services, properties, and existing infrastructure; establishment of protected areas; restoration of degraded habitats; construction of sea walls; diversification of income generating activities; and water harvesting methods.