Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Syria.


Overall risks from climate-related impacts are evaluated based on the interaction of climate-related hazards (including hazardous events and trends) with the vulnerability of communities (susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to adapt), and exposure of human and natural systems. Changes in both the climate system and socioeconomic processes -including adaptation and mitigation actions- are drivers of hazards, exposure, and vulnerability (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014).

Syria is at risk to several natural hazards, including floods, droughts, extreme temperatures, landslides, and storms.

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. It allows for a quick assessment of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

This tool allows the overlay of different natural hazard maps with social economic datasets by sliding the bar horizontally, which provides a broad sense of vulnerable areas.


Key Vulnerabilities

  • Syria is exposed to extreme rainfall events that often exceed 50 mm/hour, which cause floods with severe damage to humans, livestock and agriculture.
  • Syria is exposed to heat waves during summer and spring, when temperatures increase by about 5°C above monthly averages. Heat waves can be moderate, where the temperature increases by 5-7°C, and severe, where the increase reaches 8-10°C above average.
  • Syria is also exposed to cold waves, especially during winter and, occasionally during transitional seasons, when temperatures are zero or below. The number of frost occurrences differs from year to year. Radiation frost occurs during spring.
  • Droughts have ranked among the worst of Syria’s natural disasters since 1900 in terms of the number of people affected. For example, the 2008 drought affected over 1.3 million people, and the 2009 Global Assessment Report estimated that about 10% of the Syrian population is exposed to droughts.

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.