Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Syria.


The present level of adaptation to climate risks in the agricultural sector is limited to calls for using irrigation water efficiently through a national program, restricting cropping areas, demands for new farming practices, and lately, establishing a farmer support fund. Adaptation measures in the agricultural sector must be pursued with a strategic vision in accordance with the value and importance of the agricultural sector’s contribution to the national economy and to food security of the country.

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Review agricultural policies and strategies regarding agricultural crops.
  • Develop and implement easily accessible drought forecast and monitoring information systems, in order to improve drought preparedness to mitigate the effects of drought.
  • Develop agricultural research and extension services, and change crop practices (optimum sowing date, heat-tolerant cultivars, water rationing and increasing planting density).
  • Modernize water irrigation practices and improve irrigation management.
  • Increase rain effectiveness by applying conservation farming, water harvesting and storage structures.
  • Rehabilitate burnt and degraded forests in order to increase their capacity to absorb carbon.
  • Establish networks of functional protected areas in order to ensure conservation of the country’s most valuable forest ecosystems.
  • Adopt and execute formal forest policies for forest development and conservation.
  • Scale up and strengthen the forestry bureau’s programs for integrated forest management and protection.
  • Prepare a national water master plan within the framework of integrated water resources management, integrating policies and strategies related to water use.
  • Improve irrigation efficiency by reducing water demand for irrigation through changes in the cropping calendar, crop mix, irrigation methods and areas planted.
  • Improve rainwater collection techniques.
  • Rationalize water use and apply water saving measures.
  • Rehabilitate existing dams and improve water basin infrastructure for increased water storage capacity.
  • Strengthen existing observation networks (meteorological, surface and groundwater).
  • Build capacity to integrate climate change adaptation strategies into sector and cross-sector development plans.
  • Strengthen institutional and technical capacity of water-related agencies to ensure systematic collection, processing and exchange of data and information, and produce better coordination and cooperation between various water stakeholders.
  • Enforce laws and regulations related to spring protection zones, well drilling permissions, drilling supervision and specifications, protection of groundwater recharge zones, groundwater pumping schemes, protection of groundwater and surface water from pollution, and water resources development.
  • Upgrade infrastructure to improve efficiency in water pumping technology, and power plants and industrial processes.
  • Encourage renewable energy sources of energy.
  • Improve building and residential insulation to maximize cooling and heating system efficiency.
  • Increase technology transfer and investment to improve current plants, as well as diversity and acquiring of renewable energy, climate-resilient systems.
  • Integrate biodiversity protection strategies and action plans within national climate change plans and programs.
  • Promote conservation measures and the sustainable use of biodiversity components.
  • Formulate long-term research initiatives on the status of species and their adaptability to changing environments.
  • Promote public awareness, emphasizing the importance of biodiversity and the probable impact of climate change.
  • Map institutions related to coastal activities and assess their capacity for proper planning and forecasting.
  • Assess present pressure impacts and the possible impact of climate change on coastal systems.
  • Develop engineering, as well as non-engineering, adaptation measures.
  • Formulate a framework that incorporates integrated coastal zone management, disaster management and research as vital cross-cutting adaptation options.
  • Build capacity of related institutions.
  • Increase public awareness of risks posed by sea level rise.

Gaps and Needs

  • Develop local climatic prediction models and downscaling models to better project country-level adaptation strategies.
  • Conduct studies and research to assess adverse impacts and vulnerability to climate change in all sectors and geographical areas.
  • Enhance technical capacity for monitoring and data collection, data management and updating of basic data sets, and preparing basic maps and databases.
  • Improve meteorological, air quality and water monitoring through modernizing equipment and extending monitoring networks.
  • Improve data analysis, sharing and coordination is critical. Information on water resources, agriculture and forest sector risks and vulnerability need to be disseminated at the local level as soon as possible, as improved public awareness and involvement will be an essential part of future adaptation programs.
  • Secure and mobilize financial resources to conduct studies and implement adaptation measures.
  • Build databases on socioeconomic data that are currently unavailable or available in inappropriate forms; data of some socioeconomic variables are available at the governorate level, but not at city, town or village levels.