Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Syria.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Syria's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Syria's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF


Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is located in Western Asia. Syria’s economy largely depends on industry and oil production. Water resources are limited and not evenly distributed. Thus, water shortages are common due to heavy use for irrigation agriculture (about 88% of all freshwater). In spite of availability of water from several basins including the Yarmouk and Orontes, Syria has an annual water deficit currently estimated at about 3 billion cubic meters (about 20% of all water needs). Syria faces several economic constraints, including water scarcity, declining oil production, population growth, rising budget deficits and high unemployment. Syria’s population is approximately 17.5 million (2020). Increased environmental stress due to excessive water use and pollution, deforestation, overgrazing and soil erosion are likely to negatively impact on the country’s agricultural production, and the effects of climate change will only exacerbate these issues.