Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Syria.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Syria's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Syria's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is located in Western Asia. Syria’s economy largely depends on industry and oil production. In 2009, sectoral contributions to gross domestic product for industry were estimated at 34%, followed by agriculture at 21%, and tax revenue at 16.3%. Water resources are limited and not evenly distributed. Thus, water shortages are common due to heavy use for irrigation agriculture (about 88% of all freshwater). In spite of availability of water from several basins including the Yarmouk and Orontes, Syria has an annual water deficit currently estimated at about 3 billion cubic meters (about 20% of all water needs). Syria faces several economic constraints, including water scarcity, declining oil production, population growth, rising budget deficits and high unemployment. Increased environmental stress due to excessive water use and pollution, deforestation, overgrazing and soil erosion are likely to negatively impact on the country’s agricultural production, and the effects of climate change will only exacerbate these issues.

The Ministry of State for the Environment is the primary governing body responsible for issues of the environment within Syria. The Ministry is responsible for providing legislative framework guidelines, increasing institutional support for the environment, and integrating environmental aspects into development planning. This independent environmental ministry was the first of its kind in the region. Syria ratified the Paris Agreement on November 13, 2017 and submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution on November 30, 2018.