Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Swaziland.


Swaziland is at risk of hydrometeorological hazards and natural disasters, which primarily affect the agricultural sector, through seasonal flooding and periods of drought. The country experiences natural hazards such as violent storms, epidemic diseases, floods, storms and forest fires. Persistent drought is further exacerbating the country’s existing challenges of food insecurity and ability to attain development goals. Consequences of severe, recent droughts for the country have resulted in 25% of the population being vulnerable and acknowledged as food and water insecure, with many households still reliant on welfare and social safety nets. The regions with the highest prevalence of food insecurity are Lubombo and Shiswelweni, the areas most affected by the drought. 

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. It allows for a quick assessment of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

This tool allows the overlay of different natural hazard maps with social economic datasets by sliding the bar horizontally, which provides a broad sense of vulnerable areas.


Key Vulnerabilities

  • Drought impacts human health by changing water availability, impacting food production, agricultural production, energy, mining, among other important sectors. Rising temperatures and changing climatic patterns could impact the incidence of droughts in certain regions. Decreased precipitation and periods of drought are expected to adversely impact the country, specifically its agricultural and livestock sectors.
  • Temperature will increase year-round, peaking in the hottest summer period (October to December). Likewise, the expected changes in decreased rainfall increases probability of drought for Swaziland.
  • Water resources will be affected by changing temperatures, precipitation regimes, and humidity, which will have long-term implications on the amount and quality of water available.
  • Droughts may become more frequent in some areas due to river runoff decrease as well as from increased demand and consumption from economic development and population growth. 
  • Climate change is expected to increase risks and severity of natural disasters in Swaziland as well as for the southern Africa region, through more intense temperatures as well as rainfall patterns, prolonged heat waves, and water scarcity. 
  • Swaziland has released its National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action (2013-2015) – Interim Report, which aims to augment the country’s Disaster Management Act (2006) and its National Disaster Preparedness and Response Plan. 
  • Swaziland’s disaster risk management (DRM) aims to improve its recognition of the country’s changing disaster profile, specifically in response to changing weather patterns and long-term climate changes.
  • National contingency planning aims to support community resilience to common natural disasters such as floods, and infectious diseases such as cholera, but also to improve preparedness and resilience to natural hazards throughout the environment, health agriculture, water, and forestry sectors