Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Somalia.

Impacts Water

In most parts of Somalia, water has always been scarce. Water scarcity has been aggravated by the destruction and looting of water supply installations during the civil war, the continuing conflicts, and general lack of maintenance. They are compounded with erratic rain patterns, which produce both droughts and floods. The main sources of water are: river water, surface run off, rainwater harvesting from roofs, hand dug wells and springs. In addition, bore wells are the principal source of municipal water supply in most towns and in rural and pastoral areas during the dry seasons, and tend to be managed inadequately leading to unsustainable water usage and water scarcity. In addition, Somalia has a limited number of reliable rural water sources. There are around 3,700 water points mapped by FAO in 2014 with more than 40% reported as not permanent or not functioning. Only about 500 are improved water sources protected from contamination. Another problem is the location of boreholes: 50% of Somali boreholes are either deeper than 130 m or located at 480 m altitude, and are thus very difficult to access.

This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.