Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Somalia.

Impacts Agriculture

The Somali economy has traditionally been dominated by livestock and crop production, followed by fisheries and forestry, with these four sectors supporting over 80% of the population. The level of agricultural production, including bananas, cotton, rice, mango trees, and citrus, is generally far below its peak in the late 1980's. Livestock continues to dominate Somali exports (40% in 2016), followed by sesame, dry lemon, charcoal, fish, hides and skins. Prior to the civil war, livestock and livestock products accounted for 65% of the country’s exports, which was followed by banana. Livestock is concentrated in the southern regions and the arid and semi-arid north of Somaliland and Puntland. In Somaliland, livestock contributes roughly 85% of export earnings and employs more than 70% of the population. As a result of the climatic variability, food security remains a major problem for Somalia. In March 2017, food insecurity has further increased and peaked in the pastoral lean season throughout the country. Projected increases in temperatures could have vast impacts on the Somali population, livestock and crop yields. Heat stress could alter livestock’s feed intake, mortality, growth and production. With increasing temperatures, water consumption will increase while water availability will decrease causing additional water stress.

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. It allows for a quick assessment of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.