Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Somalia.


Somalia's priority adaptation measures as laid out in the National Adaptation Program of Action (2013) involve sustainable land management, integrated water management, sustainable coastal management, and disaster risk management. Somalia calls for international cooperation to ban illegal export of charcoal and advocate the use of more efficient kilns for charcoal making and efficient stoves in order to reduce trees filling.

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Consistently update emergency response mechanisms for agro-pastoral communities. This involves scaling up on advocacy and resource mobilization to address the impact of post drought conditions, especially for “Deyr” harvest lean seasons.
  • Implement climate-smart agricultural practices.
  • Increase awareness of climatic extremes among relevant stakeholders and local communities. Regional and local governments should further ensure an adequate access of possible adaptation measures for the agriculture sector to populations in need of assistance.
  • Disseminate improved technologies and make them accessible to Somali farmers.
  • Develop and implement national and regional water resource management plans.
  • Establish a government-led participatory mechanism for the water sector coordination based on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) principles, with focus on supporting the livestock and agricultural sector.
  • Construct water storage infrastructure (medium to large-scale reservoirs) including supply for irrigation, livestock watering points and boreholes. New water projects should be accompanied by an Environmental Impact Assessment. 
  • Construct and rehabilitate community level infrastructure including berkeds, shallow wells, ponds and other appropriate technologies. In this context, ensure that maintenance mechanisms of the schemes are in place.
  • Explore alternative ways and technologies for storing water, as well as flood control and protection measures for the areas along the Somali coastline.

Gaps and Needs

  • An improved understanding of traditional mechanisms for coping with climate hazards, coupled with effectively designed strategies for dissemination of endogenous knowledge, could support vulnerability reduction for the country’s population.
  • There is a growing demand for detailed accounts of local adaptation to climate change, to serve as a starting point for knowledge exchange on successful practices among vulnerable populations and to support rational policymaking in vulnerable areas.
  • Technology access and income diversification activities need to be explored and piloted across Somalia as they were identified as having pro-poor effects.
  • Governments need to develop sector oversight to coordinate domestic and external interventions. 
  • Lack of regulatory framework often means highly priced water and poor quality of drinking water.
  • No standardized construction guidelines to mitigate poor quality construction, use of poor quality materials.
  • Building and strengthening institutional capacity to identify, assess, and understand disaster and climate risks in terms of their economic and fiscal impact.
  •  Existence of gaps for the baseline climate data in Somalia (mainly between 1990 and 2002 during the period of prolonged civil war.
  • Water Resources of Somalia FAO project: Major data gaps in some regions (southern regions in Lad Dera and Lag Badana basins) due to security concerns and data gaps in some sectors such as water for other uses like industry, environment and wetlands (swamps). Recommendations to collect data on these were stated by FAO for a holistic approach of water resources management.