Solomon Islands

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Solomon Islands.

Impacts Water

According to the World Bank, over 70% of the people in the Solomon Islands in 2008 had access to improved water and sanitation. As with many other island nations, however, the Solomon Islands have uniquely fragile water resources due to their small size, lack of storage, and limited fresh water. The country’s Water Resources Programme has paid limited attention to water management and infrastructure rehabilitation for water and waste water, and this is also hampered by the typical constraints of small island nations (i.e. isolation, fragile natural variability, and a limited human, financial, and capital resource base). Furthermore, almost no attention has been paid to the potential effects of climate-related extremes on current water resources, especially with regards to salt-water intrusion. Anecdotal evidence suggests that water crises during El Niño-driven droughts are becoming increasingly common on smaller and more remote atolls such as the South Guadalcanal, Malaita, and Western province, which have limited freshwater lenses and rainwater-harvesting capacity, and high costs to serve from the central government.

This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.