Country

Senegal

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Senegal.

Adaptation

Senegal's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution lays out the adaptation objectives for eight different sectors for 2016-2035. The objectives include making ecosystems more resilient, protecting coastal areas and vulnerable communities, developing an integrated water resource management system, promoting insurance for fishing communities, creating early warning systems to provide information to farmers, improving animal health to protect livestock, strengthening sanitation infrastructure in urban areas among several others. The total cost of adaptation actions to climate change by 2035 is estimated to be USD$14.558 billion. 

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Disseminate fertilization techniques. 
  • Reorganize farming systems. 
  • Establish an early warning system in rural areas. This will also include capturing the typical atmospheric circulation features that can trigger pest infestations, such as the West Africa desert locust.
  • Develop institutional support and training for policy makers on climate change. 
  • Develop and implement insurance mechanisms and social protection. 
  • Disseminate agro-forestry techniques. 
  • Implement crop diversification. 
  • Implement the use of short cycle varieties and varieties tolerant to salinity. 
  • Create more mechanisms for collection and water storage (i.e. dams, retention basins, anti-salt structures, windbreaks). 
  • Expand community woodlots. 
  • Prevent bush fires. 
  • Develop education programs to raise awareness on water resources, competing needs, and integrated management.
  • Implement strict control of the use of chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides).
  • Maintain the balance between exploitation rate and renewal rate of groundwater. 
  • Develop and enforce a restoration plan for all housing projects. 
  • Protect hydraulic infrastructure, including the systematic care of catchment area.
  • Manage rain water and river flows. 
  • Implement integrated coastal zone management, including coastal zone mapping and regulation of infrastructure in coastal zones. 
  • Implement livelihood diversification mechanisms for fishing communities and the exploration of alternative species for markets. 
  • Encourage the proper use of beach land and implement protective measures for coastal areas. 
  • Ban beach-sand mining and adopt related policies (Senegal is making major progress in reducing coastal vulnerability, supported by the 2009-2010 Poverty Reduction Support Credit). 

Gaps and Needs

  • Appropriate monitoring and modeling of projected changes in sea level and storm surges, particularly in the vulnerable coastal regions around Thies, Dakar and the Senegal River delta, based on an agreed approach.
  • New methods to improve water use in agriculture, and encourage the use of new cultivars and improved seeds, in particular in those regions which are currently facing water deficits during the dry seasons.
  • Although housing and social protection benefit from projects that aim to reduce coastal erosion and flooding, no concrete adaptation projects focused directly on these sectors are ongoing. Additional effort may be required to develop and implement new adaptation actions that respond to Senegal’s needs in these areas.
  • Although early warning systems have been identified as a priority need, no project focused on are currently underway in the country to improve such systems.
  • Numerous projects that address the impacts of current climate variability are ongoing at the local level. These include reforestation, irrigation, soil restoration and construction of dikes, irrigation and mangrove restoration schemes, as well as risk and disaster managements plans in response to floods in urban areas.
  • Integrated approaches are emerging, including the project called “Adaptation to Climate Change - Responding to Climate Change and to its human dimensions in West Africa through the integrated management of the coastal area” (ACCC) and the Climate Change and Development Adapting by Reducing Vulnerability (CC DARE) Project.
  • Senegal also hosts a large collection of NGOs, and research institutes whose principle aim is to improve adaptation capacities and build adaptation networks (such as: INFOCLIM, CONGAD, and ISRA).
  • Other development organizations and agencies, such as the Japanese International Cooperation International Agency (JICA) and the UNDP, are making effort to realize co-benefits between adaptation interventions such as in the agricultural and health sectors.
  • Detailed vulnerability analyses for rural regions in the south to identify not only potential risks to food security but also opportunities that may arise due to projected changes in climate.
  • In coastal areas, a higher-resolution segmentation of the coastline is required in order to further develop and identify appropriate adaptation measures. Improved elevation measurements, more detailed population data, locally derived return periods for high water levels (1 in 1, 1 in 10, 1 in 100, etc.), coastal geomorphology, sediment loads, and improved sea-level measurements could all help to refine areas and the numbers of people potentially at risk from flood damage.
  • Conduct a baseline needs inventory of Senegal’s coastal resources. This mapping exercise can help to identify sensitive areas and support the identification of appropriate mechanisms to reduce future impacts.
  • dMany gaps exist in flood prevention and response, including a lack of detailed forecasts and risk zone maps, and suitable flood vulnerability assessment methods and data collection systems. Building such a system could offer guidance on effective early warning and response at the national level.
  • Downscaled climate information is available for several stations in Senegal, but the spatial coverage of country-wide stations, including along the coast, needs to be improved.