Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Rwanda.

Impacts Agriculture

Rwanda is heavily reliant on rain-fed agriculture which accounts for 35% of GDP and 80% of total employment, making it highly vulnerable to climate change. Studies show that Rwanda will become a hotspot for food insecurity due to climate change along with many neighboring nations. Regional food insecurity could potentially lead to an increase in migration and urbanization. Increases in temperature and changes in rainfall patterns could severely affect crop production, impacting food security and export revenues especially from tea and coffee. In addition, climate induced disasters (e.g. floods and droughts) could significantly reduce crop yields and damage rural livelihoods. Crops may be further negatively affected by new parasites and pests which thrive in the new climate. Maize, the staple food for a large population in east Africa, is especially susceptible to heat stress and water stress. Maize yield is projected to drop by 15% by 2020 in majority of sub-Saharan African region. Meanwhile, rice yield is predicted to encounter a 10% decline with every 1°C increase in growing season minimum temperature. Climate change is also putting the health of farm animals at risk and as temperatures rise, diseases could spread to new areas, particularly higher altitudes. Out of the main livestock diseases in Rwanda, ticks (as ectoparasites), tick-borne diseases and trypanosomiasis are the most likely to be sensitive to climate change.

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.