Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Rwanda.


Rwanda is highly vulnerable to climate change as it is strongly reliant on rain-fed agriculture both for rural livelihoods and for exports of mainly tea and coffee. With one of the highest population density in Africa, adaptation concerns are a priority under its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC, 2015). Rwanda's long term vision is to become a climate resilient economy, with strategic objectives to achieve Energy Security and a Low Carbon Energy Supply that supports the development of Green Industry and Services; Sustainable Land Use and Water Resource Management that result in Food Security, appropriate Urban Development and preservation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, as well as to ensure Social Protection, Improved Health and Disaster Risk Reduction that reduces vulnerability to climate change impacts (Green Growth and Climate Resilience Strategy, 2011). Rwanda’s priority adaptation actions identified in its Green Growth and Climate Resilient Strategy are ongoing and will be partially or fully achieved by 2050. Many of the actions specified under the sectors programmes have both mitigation and adaptation benefits.

Key Adaptation Policies & Reports

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Invest more in energy generation infrastructures sector by building other hydropower stations. Potentials exist on Nyabarongo river, Rusizi, Akagera and on smaller streams where there are potentials for micro-hydropower stations;
  • Promote new and renewable energies;
  • Control erosion on hillsides around Lakes Burera and Ruhondo to prevent sedimentation that in the end, would lead to their drying up whereas they stand for compensating reservoirs for Ntaruka and Mukungwa hydropower stations;
  • IWRM (integrated water resource management);
  • Introduction of early warning systems/ rapid intervention;
  • Introduction of wood varieties resistant to environmental conditions;
  • Development of energy sources alternative to firewood.
  • Broadcast weather forecasts and sowing date recommendations;
  • Land husbandry, conservation agriculture, inter- or multicropping and precise fertilizer use under CIP and beyond;
  • Breed new climate smart and nutrient efficient varieties using molecular markers;
  • Breed and disseminate varieties more resistant to pests and diseases;
  • Develop new strategies for disease vector control and prevention;
  • Expand on appropriate irrigation and rain water harvesting technologies;
  • Incentivize rainwater harvesting and expand investment in water harvesting at settlement and community levels.
  • Development of agro-forestry for sustainable agriculture and landscape restoration;
  • Afforestation/ reforestation of remaining free and designated areas through improved germplasm and technical practices in planting and effective postplanting/tending operations;
  • Improved Forest Management of degraded forest resources;
  • Efficient use of wood and biomass energy;
  • Promotion of Public-Private partnerships in forest management.
  • Establish a National Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) framework;
  • District and Community based catchment management;
  • Better understand of the water balance: Monitoring, modeling and analysis, information management;
  • Water security through efficiency and conservation.
  • Integration of climate information in urban infrastructure planning and design;
  • Establishment of early warning system for disaster response plans;
  • Relocate households from high risk zones g. Buildings erected for housing;
  • Application of climate adapted material and technologies;
  • Regular maintenance and upgrading of road and drainage infrastructures (Improved transport infrastructure).
  • Increased vector control, increased sanitation, improving health care services, improving accessibility to health care services, monitoring of foodborne and waterborne diseases;
  • Increased childcare services, increased healthcare services;
  • Improved nutrition services;
  • Increased disaster risk management;
  • Increased healthcare services.