Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Russia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Russia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Russia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Officially the Russian Federation is a country in Eurasia, located between latitudes 41° and 82°N, and longitudes 19°E and 169°W. Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering one-eighth of the Earth’s inhabited land area or 17,125,200 km2.  Russia’s population is estimated at 142,257,519 with 74.4% living in urban areas. The country’s GDP (PPP adjusted, 2017) is estimated at $4 trillion with services contributing 62.3%, industry 32.4% and agriculture 4.7%. GDP per capita (PPP adjusted) is estimated at $27,800. Russia is a major emitter of greenhouse gases (contributing to 4.5% of GHG emissions), and a leading global supplier of fossil fuels.

Russia’s climate ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia, and subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north. Winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia. Summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast. Climate change-induced hazards include permafrost thawing, increase in the frequency of wildfires, peatland fires, increased health risks due to heat-waves, flash floods, coastal flooding, and increased erosion. Russia has not ratified the Paris Agreement.