Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Russia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Russia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Russia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The Russian Federation is a country in Eurasia, located between latitudes 41° and 82°N, and longitudes 19°E and 169°W. Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering one-eighth of the Earth’s inhabited land area or 17,125,200 km2. Russia’s population is estimated at over 144 million (2020) people, with 74.4% living in urban areas. The country’s economy is driven by its services, industry, and agriculture sectors. Russia is a major emitter of greenhouse gases (contributing to 4.5% of GHG emissions), and a leading global supplier of fossil fuels. Russia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change from extreme events such as increase in the frequency and duration of droughts, extreme precipitation, floods, forest fire, degradation of permafrost in the northern region heat-waves, flash floods, coastal flooding, and increased erosion.