Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Romania.

Impacts Agriculture

Agriculture is a priority sector for Romania's economy and food security. Areas of particular risks involve the banks of the Danube River, known for its fruit and wine production. Precipitation is expected to be higher in winter months and lower in summer months. Temperatures are expected to increase across all seasons. These will result in shorter vegetation periods. Furthermore, physiological effects of rising carbon dioxide concentrations is adversely impacting crops. Winter wheat and maize are particularly at risk. According to expected trends, vegetation periods for maize are projected to decrease by 7 days by 2020 and by 12 days by 2050, resulting in 14% and 21% lower yields, respectively. Expected soil-water deficits are projected to significantly impact grain-fill periods (July-August).

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.