Flooding in Serbia can occur throughout the year, with the peak in spring when there are high levels of precipitation and snowmelt from the mountains. The 2014 floods damaged flood protection infrastructure (mostly embankments), which failed due to underground erosion beneath their foundations. It is expected that more floods will occur by the end of the 21st century, with an increase (close to 20 percent) in the frequency of 100-year floods for large rivers such as the Danube, Sava, and Tisa. However, Serbia needs to contend with not only too much runoff, but also too little. Annual river discharge has decreased in some areas due to changes in precipitation. It is estimated that the average annual discharge in Serbia will drop by roughly 13 percent by 2020 and by 19 percent by 2100, which may also be accompanied by reductions in water quality. These changes will likely occur in conjunction with more intense and frequent droughts, which will affect the availability of surface moisture and groundwater. (USAID Climate Risk Profile, 2017).
This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.