Republic of North Macedonia

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Republic of North Macedonia.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Republic of North Macedonia's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Republic of North Macedonia's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF


The Republic of North Macedonia is a small (25,713 km2), landlocked country that is located in the middle of the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe. It has a diverse topography with high mountains and deep valleys surrounded by mountains, picturesque rivers, large and small natural lakes, and spas. Land use for agriculture covers almost 50% of the surface area of the country, and forests cover approximately one-third of the country. As an upper middle-income country, foreign trade accounts for more than 90% of its GDP. The agriculture sector also contributes to the country’s GDP and provides employment to 21.7% of the workforce. The country’s population is approximately 2.1 million (2020) people. The Republic of North Macedonia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change from changes in climatic conditions, such as increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation and increases in extreme weather events, such as heat waves. These pose increasing risks to the country’s agricultural sector which contributes to its overall economy.