Republic of Montenegro

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Republic of Montenegro.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Republic of Montenegro's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications in the map below use observed, historical data (sourced from the Climate Research Unit [CRU]) and are derived by applying the Köppen-Geiger climate classification methodology. This classification divides climate into five primary climate groups, which are divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five primary groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates, except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter). It is important to understand the different climate contexts that exist within a country as well as the surrounding region when analyzing current climates and projected change. Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Republic of Montenegro's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

Montenegro is a young small state in the Western Balkans, located in the central part of a moderately warm zone in the Northern Hemisphere (41°52’ and 43°32’ latitude North and 18°26’ and 19°22’ longitude East). It borders with Croatia in the west, with Bosnia and Herzegovina in the west/northwest, with Serbia and Kosovo in the north and northeast, and with Albania in the east/southeast. Its Adriatic Sea coastline is 293 km long. Montenegro became independent in 2006, after a referendum that resulted in the separation from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. According to 2013 data, the country has a population of 624,000, of which 63.23% lives in urban zones and 36.77% in rural ones, GDP per capita is estimated at 5,356 EUR.

Owing to its proximity to the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas, it has a Mediterranean climate with warm and somewhat dry summers and mild and rather humid winters. Climate monitoring and assessments show that the Montenegrin climate has changed as a result of global cli­mate change as well as variability (Second National Communication). Recent studies indicate that Balkan countries are particularly sensitive to climate and precipitation change, with weather related events becoming more frequent and intense.  Montenegro has ratified and begun to implement all international conventions and protocols on climate change. Substantial further implementation efforts remain, including those required by the EU climate acquis. The Government of Montenegro integrated climate change in its National Strategy on Sustainable Development including urban plans and National Communications on Climate Change.