Country

Philippines

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Philippines.

Adaptation

The Philippines has established an autonomous Climate Change Commission affiliated with the Office of the President, which serves as the sole government body for coordinating and evaluating policies and programs related to climate change. Given the high vulnerability of the Philippines to climatic hazards, the Climate Change Commission and National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council are working jointly to prioritize actions for mainstreaming adaptation and disaster risk management, with the aim of improving community resilience to the hazards presented by climate change. The Climate Change Action Plan (2011) lays out specific outcomes and policies for the seven thematic areas. It aims to enhance resilience of the agriculture and fisheries sector, achieve sustainability of the water supply and access to drinking water, protect and rehabilitate ecosystems, improve health and social delivery systems, promote, develop and sustain climate-smart industries and green cities, strengthen climate services, climate proofing of energy infrastructure and enhancing adaptation, mitigation and disaster risk reduction knowledge at the local and community level. 

Key Adaptation Policies & Reports

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Improve livestock production.
  • Map vulnerable agricultural areas.
  • Research indigenous resilient crop species.
  • Improve management of soil and water resources to mitigate drought conditions and ensure water availability.
  • Flood and drought monitoring systems are needed to respond appropriately to hazard events.
  • Implement soil conservation measures (such as composting and terracing).
  • Establish windbreaks (strips of trees, shrubs and vines to reduce wind-related evaporation and damage associated with heavy rains).
  • Introduce improved seeding techniques; small reservoirs; and improved outdoor grain storage facilities.
  • Develop engineering solutions (such as pipe irrigation, which controls evaporation, percolation, and seepage).
  • Implement an integrated coastal resources management framework at the local level in several areas, including improved stakeholder participation, equitable sharing of economic benefits, as well as supporting legal and policy frameworks, and monitoring and information systems.
  • Improve observation and research on coastal environmental change, and on the potential impacts of climate change on coastal areas, is also urgently needed in order to devise adaptation solutions.
  • Build storm surge barriers, in some low-lying areas such as west of Mangahan. 
  • Improve pumping capacity to reduce flood depth and duration.
  • Upgrade informal settlements to reduce the vulnerability of the urban poor.
  • Improve coordination among local government and national flood management agencies. 

Gaps and Needs

  • Comprehensive vulnerability maps identifying the locations of high vulnerability could support disaster planners in preparing communities for worse-case impacts as well as help local communities take an active role in identifying appropriate response mechanisms.
  • Improved sub-national information is needed on the impacts of climate change on agricultural production, particularly rice production, the staple food for most of the Philippines’ population.
  • Detailed assessments of climate change impacts and risks across a variety of sectors are required in order to develop sound response strategies, in particular focusing on food security, water resources, and coastal resources.
  • Support to cooperatives and extension services are required in order to guarantee farmers access to inputs and credit.
  • Improved extension services are desperately required, particularly in the vulnerable agricultural regions.
  • Donor, agency, and institutional coordination is crucial to ensure synergistic action, particularly with regards to addressing climate change risks in disaster risk management. Of particular note is the requirement for significant collaboration between extension works and hydrometeorological research institutions, making climate data and information accessible to farmers.
  • Improved capacity for agricultural and coastal zone impact modeling is needed.
  • Enforcement of current legislation is required in order to mitigate the potential negative effects of climate change on already vulnerable areas.
  • Improving the country’s meteorological services, including restoring and upgrading the basic infrastructure and operations, and putting in place an appropriate local capacity building program to improve scientific/technical staff resource levels and to upgrade skills.
  • The results of technical studies conducted on climate change impacts should be disseminated to all relevant local partners, in order to both apprise relevant partners of emerging information as well as avoiding potential duplication of work.
  • Map hazards and vulnerabilities: Highlighting the location of specific hotspots in the country where climate-related hazards are experienced or likely to be felt is a key step in identifying intervention areas. Mapping exercises should document the current hazards, use socio economic information to characterize the vulnerability of the areas exposed to these hazards and identify the projected changing dynamics of these hazards in light of changes in climate.
  • Almost no work has been done to downscale climate models to individual islands. Realistically, it may not be possible to derive more accurate climate change information due to the small size of these islands, however, more work needs to be done to address the “island dilemma”. New information should be made available in an accessible format as well as credible and useful to decision making at the island scale.
  • Build climate change issues into National Development Plans. 
  • Adequate and reliable data are needed to develop an accurate understanding of both current and future hydro-meteorological variability.
  • Data management systems are required and need to be developed to facilitate data sharing and access to decision-relevant information.