Paraguay is home to hydrological abundance with regional differentiations in types and seasonality of water resources. Paraguay is located in the watersheds of the Paraguay River and the Paraná River, however most of the watersheds are located outside the country. The Paraguay River runs across the country marking the border of the western and eastern regions of the country and is an important transportation route. In 2011, 50% of foreign trade was transported through rivers (Second National Communication, 2011). Paraguay is also part of the Cuenca de la Plata hydrological network, home to the Acuífero Guaraní, one of the largest fresh water reservoirs in the world (Second National Communication, 2011). Water is a necessary component for hydroelectric energy production, the second largest export and a key driver to the Paraguayan economy. The country operates two large binational hydroelectric power generators in Itaipú (Paraguay and Brazil) and Yacyretá (Paraguay and Argentina) that generated around 53,000 GWh per year. Changes in regional precipitation patterns can impact the navigability of rivers and the country’s ability to transport goods. Projected increases in temperature and changes to rainfall seasonality could place stress on hydroelectric production. Increases in extreme weather events and flooding could also change transmission of vector-borne diseases like Malaria and Dengue. Such flooding events could also damage infrastructure, agricultural production, and increase risk of riverine flooding.
This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.