Pakistan is among the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Only by devising and implementing appropriate adaptation measures will it be possible to ensure water, food and energy security for the country as well as sustainable economic development. The investment costs for adaptation interventions are being determined in consultation with the provinces and other stakeholders, and will also be conveyed in due course of time. A National Adaptation Programme of Action has yet to be published, but Pakistan’s Initial National Communication on Climate Change (2003) identifies many of the country’s urgent needs for adaptation action. Further research and possible action have been called for in the sectors of water resources, agriculture, forestry, coastal zones, livestock, biodiversity, energy, and industry.