Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Oman.


Oman's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) with respect to adaptation impacts identifies the main climate impacts of flash floods, storm surges, sea level rise, coastal erosion, water scarcity and desertification and the impact of the country’s unique and vulnerable biodiversity. The INDC seeks additional funds and capacity building assistance to develop a national adaptation strategy on climate impacts and efforts to reduce these impacts.

This section helps you grasp key national adaptation policies and reports, explore adaptation options for key sectors, and understand current adaptation gaps and needs.

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Increase financial and technical assistance to small farmers.
  • Assess and implement technical solutions to develop and disseminate the technology needed for improving value added of agriculture though strengthening traditional agricultural and water-harvesting techniques.
  • Manage solutions to give more responsibility and ownership for both resource management and service provision to farmers and farmer institutions, and to improve the quality and cost effectiveness of public services for agriculture.
  • Research drought-resistant and heat- and salinity-tolerant crops.
  • Adapt farming practices, including changing cropping patterns, and adopting crops with shorter growing cycles.
  • Rehabilitate existing dams and improve water basin infrastructure for increased water storage capacity.
  • Discourage flood irrigation systems by promoting the use of efficient irrigation systems.
  • Improve rain water collection techniques.
  • Enhance capacity building to integrate climate change adaptation strategies into sector and cross-sector development plans.
  • Improve the efficiency of water desalination plants and tapping into their power generation capabilities.
  • Increase the use of recycled and treated wastewater.
  • Augment water conservation through policies.
  • Implement integrated coastal zone management programs.
  • Protect and control pollution and saline water intrusion in groundwater resulting from poorly planned and managed coastal development.
  • Conserve and sustainably use marine and fishery resources through the development and strict implementation of policy, legislative and management tools.
  • Control growth within coastal areas.

Gaps and Needs

  • National, sub-regional and regional scientific research and technology capabilities need to be developed.
  • There is need to improve access to, as well as modify and develop, appropriate modeling, forecasting and decision-support tools.
  • Technical support necessary to address climate change related risks is needed.
  • Public awareness and involvement in climate change-related programs need to be improved.
  • Omani technical staff should be trained in climate change programs.
  • A national groundwater monitoring system should be developed.
  • Forecasting and early warning programs need to be established for monitoring extreme events, such as flooding.
  • Improved data analysis, sharing and coordination are necessary, and information on water resources, risks and vulnerability in different parts of Oman need to be distributed at all levels.