Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Niger.

Impacts Water

The Sahel region’s water supply is unevenly distributed, poorly accessible due to undeveloped hydraulic supply systems, and crosses national boundaries, creating significant management challenges. For example, 90 percent of water supply in Niger come from outside country’s boundaries. Surface water is limited and often seasonal, making groundwater a primary source of water for many people in the region. Declines in rainfall, increases in temperature, and more frequent droughts contribute to a decline in surface and groundwater availability and accessibility. Although low, Niger has sufficient water resources per capita. However, it is expected to experience physical water scarcity by 2025. Increasing demand from a growing population and planned irrigation schemes along the Niger and Senegal Rivers have led to 25–60 percent reductions in flows over the last 30 years, causing increasingly severe low water levels with frequent pauses in water flows, depleted reservoirs, and reduced water supplies for cities. As a result, disputes over access to water, fish catches, and ownership of land exposed by receding waters have increased dramatically in the area. (USAID Climate Risk Profile, 2017).

This section allows you to gain insights into climate change impacts on hydrological statistics based on climate future scenarios.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.