Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Niger.

Impacts Agriculture

Agriculture in the Sahel is extensive, poorly mechanized and almost entirely reliant on the limited three to four months of variable summer rainfall (June–September), making it highly vulnerable to climate variability and change. In dry years, the region faces serious challenges related to food security and must rely on grain purchases and food aid to meet food requirements. Agriculture contributes 40 percent of the combined regional GDP and employs more than 70 percent of the labor force in Niger. Farming is practiced down to the 350 mm rain belt, while pastoralism provides the principal livelihood below this threshold. Landlocked countries, including Niger, are major cereal producers that export to neighboring countries. Staple dryland crops include millet, sorghum and cowpea, while cotton and groundnut constitute major cash crops. Temperature increases higher than 2°C are projected to decrease millet and sorghum yields by 15–25 percent by 2080. Studies cited by UNEP also suggest that because of changing rainfall patterns and degraded land, Chad and Niger could potentially lose their entire rainfed agriculture by 2100. (USAID Climate Risk Profile, 2017).

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.