Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Nicaragua.

Impacts Water

Climate change, manifested through higher temperatures and more variable rainfall, is expected to exacerbate Nicaragua’s water resource challenges, with the sector already stressed by years of drought and high rates of deforestation. Increased rainfall variability – particularly in heavily deforested watersheds – leaves many rural communities without water for half the year. Water availability will likely decrease in most basins by as much as 36–64% of current levels, particularly those located in the dry corridor (west and southwest of the country). Yet as supplies decrease and given limited storage, demand is increasing from the country’s rapidly growing population and the industrial sector. Demand for hydropower generation, accounting for 16% of the country’s energy supply, will also increase, putting pressure on already reduced river flows.

This section allows you to gain insights into climate change impacts on hydrological statistics based on climate future scenarios.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.