Myanmar can be divided into three main agro-ecological zones: i) Central Dry; ii) Coastal; and iii) Hilly. Myanmar has a tropical to subtropical monsoon climate with three seasons: i) hot, dry inter-monsoonal (mid-February to mid-May); ii) rainy southwest monsoon (mid-May to late October); and iii) cool relatively dry northeast monsoon (late October to mid-February). Mean annual rainfall is the lowest in the Central Dry Zone (500-1,000 mm), increases in the Eastern and Northern Hilly regions, and is the highest in the Southern and Rakhine Coastal regions (2,500-5,500 mm). Seasonal temperatures generally vary greatly throughout most of Myanmar, except in the south. Mean temperature ranges from 32°C in the coastal and delta areas to 21°C in the northern lowlands. In the Central Dry Zone, temperatures range from a maximum of 40-43°C in the hot/dry season to 10-15°C in the cool/relatively dry season and decrease to -1°C or 0°C at times in the highlands. Myanmar’s west coast is subject to frequent tropical storms and cyclones during October to December with a secondary peak in April to May. Key historical climate trends are summarized below:
- The observed mean annual temperature from 1971 to 2000 has increased by 0.3-0.8°C.
- Mean annual rainfall has increased from March to November and decreased during the rest of the year.
This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.