Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Mozambique.

Impacts Water

Rising temperature and the changing nature of drought periods will increase demand on water resources. Mozambique’s water management and irrigation supply system remains limited—85% of the nation’s agriculture is rain-fed. Climate change will likely result in increased water demand and bring additional stress to the limited existing system. Investment in modern agricultural technology is done only in small areas—mostly along the river banks and flood plains where there are rich soils. Flooding will destroy these advanced irrigation systems and possibly make agricultural production unsustainable.

This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.