Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Mozambique.

Impacts Agriculture

Agriculture is the mainstay of Mozambique’s economy, contributing 28% of gross domestic product (GDP) and employing over 81% of the work force. Much of the country’s agricultural production is done by small-scale subsistence farmers and 95% of food production is rain-fed. Any climate variations will have an immediate impact on the agricultural sector. Not only will an increase in climatic natural hazards, such as cyclones and droughts, have a direct impact on the agricultural production systems via crop loss, but also the onset of more subtle changes, such as groundwater salinization and higher soil temperatures, can lower yields. As the climate changes, the suitability of lands to harvest crops will shift and farmers will need to adjust their crops and seeds accordingly.

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.