Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Mozambique.


As established in the National Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy (NCCAMS), the national priority of Mozambique is defined in its mission “to increase resilience in the communities and the national economy including the reduction of climate risks, and promote a low-carbon development and the green economy through the integration of adaptation and mitigation in sectoral and local planning”. Mozambique is already investing in prevention of natural hazards and improving its early warning systems. Adaptation measures are being implemented in the agriculture, fisheries, energy, environmental, and water sectors, with particular attention being paid to the coastal zones and erosion control. (NDC, 2018)

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Switch to different cultivars (drought tolerant/shorter cycle).
  • Improve and conserve soils.
  • Agricultural research and transfer of technology.
  • Establish seed banks Target degraded areas for new cultivars, including crops with shorter growing cycles.
  • Improved and expanded irrigation systems, monitoring and control of pests and diseases, improving grazing practices to conserve soil fertility and promoting hay feeding.
  • Encourage community reforestation using native species.
  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination.
  • Improve or develop water management, including monitoring tools for use by dam operators Establish a regulatory framework for dam and waterway security.
  • Promotion of hydro and alternative energy sources as a means to meet some of the nation’s mounting energy demands.
  • Advance bio-energy technology in rural areas.
  • Expand nation's energy grid.
  • Develop Integrated Coastal Zone Management.
  • Develop/plan new investment requirements.
  • Research/monitor the coastal ecosystem.
  • Reforestation in logged mangrove zones.

Gaps and Needs

  • Modeling of extreme events under a changing climate, including localized definitions of critical climate thresholds that may exacerbate natural hazards in the future, is required in order to better inform disaster management response.
  • A coastal zone mapping and vulnerability baseline are required in order to support future environmental impact assessments and guide new developments. A plan has been in place in the Ministry of Environment to conduct this study for several years.
  • Risk assessments considering the cumulative effects of multiple hazards and related vulnerability, particularly in the Limpopo basin, are needed.
  • Limited attention has been paid to urban areas and future climate change—the potential risks to and responses by cities need to be understood.
  • Expand and strengthen dissemination and communication mechanisms available at the community and municipal level to implement early warnings.
  • Scale up experiences of community based disaster risk response projects and vulnerability reduction projects (particularly in drought prone areas) to other communities, particularly those of the Buzi river project, to other areas.
  • Securing institutional cooperation to safeguard timely response, particularly with respect to social vulnerability, in particular the links between the Ministry of Environment and INAM.
  • Improved coordination between the Disaster Risk Management Institute (INGC) and authorities responsible for Environment and Climate Change (MICOA).
  • Early warning and mapping for flood and coastal infrastructure risks—including flood prediction and monitoring system for rivers in the central region and major cities at risk from storm surges/cyclones.
  • Establishment and maintenance of an observation and data management system to support decision making in disaster management. This requires augmenting the decision critical points under the current CENOE model for response and monitoring program.
  • Efforts to translate forecasts and meteorological data into actionable information at the local level.