Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Malaysia.

Impacts Water

97% of the water supply in Malaysia is drawn from surface water flows, and storage depends almost entirely on reservoirs. This context leaves Malaysia vulnerable to extremes and unpredictability in precipitation rates. Uncertainty in downscaled climate modelling presents a major challenge to Malaysia’s water planning. Malaysia’s Biennial Update Report (2015) places an increased emphasis on the importance of integrated water resource management and basin management, including nature-based solutions. However, the threat climate change represents to natural ecosystems in Malaysia has implications for its water management. Degraded basin ecosystems increase drainage rates, exacerbating downstream flooding. An additional challenge reported by regional governments in Malaysia is the encroachment of urban sprawl onto flood prone areas, which might otherwise have acted to buffer flood water (Managing the Flood Problem in Malaysia, 2007).

This section allows you to gain insights into climate change impacts on hydrological statistics based on climate future scenarios.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.