Water resources in the country are divided geographically, with ample resources and potential in the coastal and northern areas, which are characterized by heavy rainfall during the summer and annual rainfall between 2,000 mm and 3,000 mm. The arid southern areas receive less than 400 mm of rainfall annually and have limited water supplies. Water resources from rivers and rainfall provide for the water needs of the country both in terms of agriculture and human usage, as well as electrical power generation. A National Program for Safe Water was adopted in 2005 to support the country’s efforts at meeting its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets by 2015, including provisions to improve sanitation policy and institutional capacity for water resource management. The country’s water management system, however, remains inadequate for meeting the agriculture and consumption needs of a growing population, with only 20% of the population having access to piped water and only 50% with access to safe water resources. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests significant reductions in water quality in some areas, especially in the south.
This section provides insights into projected climate change impacts on various hydrological indicators.