Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Macedonia.


Macedonia is exposed to several geophysical and climate-related hazards, some of which are increasing in frequency and magnitude. This section allows you to explore the susceptibility of livelihoods and natural systems to impacts of climate variability and change and facilitate the exploration of socioeconomic and development data and its relationships with natural hazards vulnerable areas.

This section provides a summary of key natural hazards and their associated socioeconomic impacts in a given country. And it allows quick evaluation of most vulnerable areas through the spatial comparison of natural hazard data with development data, thereby identifying exposed livelihoods and natural systems.

Natural Hazard Statistics

The charts provide overview of the most frequent natural disaster in a given country and understand the impacts of those disasters on human populations.

Natural Hazard / Development Nexus

Understanding natural hazard occurrence as well as historical climate conditions, in relation to development contexts, is critical to understanding a country’s historical vulnerability. This tool allows the visualization of different natural hazards or historical climate conditions with socio-economic and development datasets. Select the Development Context and either a Natural Hazard or Climate Condition and overlay horizontally by sliding the toggle left or right to gain a broader sense of historically vulnerable areas.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.


Key Vulnerabilities

  • Earthquake hazard is classified as ‘medium’ by ThinkHazard, meaning that there is a 10% chance of potentially-damaging earthquake shaking in your project area in the next 50 years. The hazard level is consistent across the country. Earthquakes accounted for 78% of average annual monetary loss in Macedonia between 1990 to 2014.
  • Landslide hazard is classified as ‘low’ by ThinkHazard, meaning that Macedonia has rainfall patterns, terrain slope, geology, soil, land cover and (potentially) earthquakes that make localized landslides an uncommon hazard phenomenon. The hazard level is greatest is eastern and western regions of the country.
  • River flooding hazard is classified as ‘high’ by ThinkHazard, meaning that potentially damaging and life-threatening river floods are expected to occur at least once in the next 10 years. The hazard level is highest in the central northern regions. Flooding constitute 50% of disasters recorded in Macedonia between 1990 to 2014, and 22% of average annual monetary losses over the same period.
  • Water scarcity hazard is classified as ‘medium’ by ThinkHazard, meaning that there is up to a 20% chance droughts will occur in the coming 10 years. The hazard level is highest in the northern regions.
  • Extreme temperatures and wildfires, respectively, accounted for 25% and 13% of disasters recorded nationally between 1990 to 2014.

More information on natural hazards can be found at ThinkHazard.