Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Macedonia.

Climate Data Historical

Annual mean temperatures in Macedonia range from approximately 8°C in the north-west regions to 15°C in central regions. The coldest month is January, and on average July is the hottest month. Precipitation generally increases from east to west across the country, with annual precipitation ranging from about 400mm in the south-eastern and central regions to over 1,000 mm in the mountain areas in the western and northwestern regions. In the southern regions with a Mediterranean climate, the months of October, November and December have the highest precipitation, while in the central and norther regions, where the climate is more continental, the greatest amounts of rainfall occur in May and June. 


  • Records from 1961-2012 show that the during most recent twenty years (1994-2012), the mean annual temperature has been 0.2°C to 0.5°C higher than the multi-year average for 1961-1990.
  • Between 1961-2012, the number of summer days has increased significantly in recent years compared to the number at the beginning of the period, and there has also been an increase in the number of tropical nights in recent years.
  • Cold waves have occurred much less frequently than heat waves. The greatest frequency of heat waves has occurred in the most recent 10 years of the recording period (1961-2012): it is estimated that the intensity, length and number of heat waves regionally have increased by a factor of six to eight since the 1960s.
  • There has also been a general trend of decline in the number of ice days per year, however no general change in the number of annual frost days has been observed.


  • A general decrease in rainfall in May and November (the months with the most rainfall) has been observed, however, due to annual fluctuations, it is difficult to establish the exact amount of the decrease in annual precipitation totals.
  • Best available data shows that the quantity of total annual precipitation for the period 1971-2000 and 1981-2010 at almost all meteorological stations is lower than for the period 1961-1990.

This section provides the options to visualize historical climate data for different timeframes via map and annual cycle chart.


Click on map to change chart data from country aggregated to site-specific data.