Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Macedonia.


Due to the extensive use of fossil fuels, particularly the dominant share of domestic lignite for electricity production, there is a significant potential in the country for GHG emissions reduction.The focus of the Macedonian NDC is put on climate change mitigation, that is, on policies and measures which lead to GHG emissions reduction. However, this does not suggest that adaptation is less important. Vulnerable sectors and climate change adaptation shall be subject to a more detailed analysis in the future, from the point of view of NDC needs. (NDC, 2018)

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Support programs for certain crops and breeds;
  • Adjusting sowing dates and depth;
  • Modern irrigation practices;
  • Organic farming;
  • Genetically heat-tolerant breeding animals;
  • Land consolidation and development of a functioning land market;
  • Adoption of special feed and feeding techniques in excessive heat;
  • Housing conditions with ventilation, air-conditioning and cooling systems;
  • and productivity monitoring.
  • Development and improvement of water storage and supply infrastructure;
  • Coordination of water use between stakeholders;
  • Modernization of the hydro-meteorological network;
  • Introduction of water-saving and efficiency measures across sectors;
  • Improvements in water supply and use techniques in agriculture and industry;
  • Inter-basin water transfers;
  • Conjunctive surface water and groundwater management;
  • Pricing and management measures for the energy sector;
  • Rehabilitation and improved maintenance of existing assets and infrastructure;
  • Water re-use and recycling (industry, domestic, agriculture);
  • and measures related to disaster risk reduction.
  • Program to adapt forestry to climate change;
  • Establishing monitoring stations;
  • Introducing technologies for efficient biomass usage;
  • Procurement of modern fire-fighting equipment;
  • and conducting a biomass stocking exercise.
  • Energy efficiency in buildings (both heat retention in winter and cooling in summer);
  • Capitalizing on hydropower potential to help increase water storage capacity in the face of growing drought risks;
  • Increasing protective margins in construction and placement of energy infrastructure (i.e. higher standards and specifications);
  • Climate proofing existing energy infrastructure and assets (particularly against flooding);
  • and developing markets for other renewable energy sources.
  • Raising awareness about climate change and effects on health;
  • Inter-sectoral engagement and coordination on climate-related health risks;
  • Improved information and transparency in food safety;
  • Strengthened vector-borne communicable disease monitoring;
  • More precise meteorological observations and projects for precautionary measures (including early warning system for flooding);
  • Coordinating alert systems with existing air pollution alert systems;
  • Pollen monitoring;
  • Assessment of UV health risks for exposed workers/populations;
  • and maintaining access to safe drinking water, especially in rural areas.