Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Libya.


The climate renders many parts of Libya susceptible to floods, sandstorms, dust storms, and desertification. Climate change poses a significant threat to Libya’s economic development and sustainability. Libya’s agriculture relies heavily on irrigation, but limited renewable water resources, coupled with harsh climatic conditions and poor soil, severely limit production. Low agricultural yields force the country to import about 75% of the food required to meet local needs. Furthermore, a number of socioeconomic and institutional factors hamper Libya’s ability to respond to current and projected changes in climate, including: weak institutional structures; ambiguous environmental legal and regulatory frameworks and low institutional or technical capacity to address climate change.

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Implement adaptation policies that allow agricultural development to proceed within the country’s natural and potential future climatic constraints.
  • Research drought-resistant and heat- and salinity-tolerant crops.
  • Manage the country’s natural resources in a sustainable manner.
  • Improve productivity and meet changing demand patterns for food and water.
  • Develop medium- and long-term water resources and agricultural production projections for better planning and sustainable use.
  • Implement better mechanisms for water allocation for municipal and industrial use.
  • Strengthen management measures for moderating water demand, particularly in the agriculture sector, which consumes the vast bulk of available water.
  • Rehabilitate wastewater treatment plants.
  • Maintain civil and mechanical works and connection of sewage pumping sanitation.
  • Conduct analytical studies, monitoring and data collection on all pollution forms and sources.
  • Introduce legislation and guidelines concerned with defining pollution levels reaching the Mediterranean Sea through waste water and solid waste.
  • Implement environmental monitoring of pollutant concentration levels in seawater.
  • Educate people about the importance of seawater and shores as a rich natural resource.
  • Implement measures to limit pollution and damage to marine ecology from human activities.
  • Implement proper monitoring of wastewater treatment plants to prevent illegal discharge of untreated waste water into the sea.
  • Implement municipal solid waste management and installation of sanitary landfills.

Gaps and Needs

  • Libya lacks advanced and specialized central research centers and facilities for climate-related research.
  • National, sub-regional and regional scientific research and technology capabilities need to be developed.
  • There is need to improve access to, and to modify and develop, appropriate modelling, forecasting and decision-support tools.
  • Continued personnel training is needed on current tools and methods for climate research, as well as on risk and vulnerability management.
  • Hazardous waste is a big environmental problem across Libya due to low environmental regulation and public awareness. Environmental education programs on the impacts of pollutants, as well as on climate change science and risks, are needed.
  • Public participation in environmental protection programs, as well as awareness campaigns on climate change, need to be encouraged.
  • Environmental inspection and monitoring requires specialist technical capabilities and stationary and mobile laboratory equipment, which are currently lacking. Therefore, training and equipment facilitates for monitoring are needed.
  • The organizational framework of national environmental organizations is characterized by fragmentation of responsibility among agencies, with resource and investment allocation decisions in the hands of a number of different agencies. Coordination and working relationships among the concerned agencies needs to be improved.