Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Lebanon.


Lebanon has been a victim of difficult national circumstances as a result of its regional context as well as its low share in global emissions (0.07%). Adaptation is a priority for Lebanon as a developing country with scarce water resources and high population density in the coastal areas. International support is required to fully implement and track the existing adaptation strategies and to further mainstream adaptation throughout the economy. The adaptation focal sectors in Lebanon's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution are biodiversity, forestry, agriculture and water resources. (INDC, 2015)

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Set up and implement a sustainable agricultural policy to maintain the viability of the agriculture sector and an acceptable level of food security.
  • Adopt sustainable agriculture practices, such as conservation agriculture, adequate crop rotations and organic farming as part of soil and water management.
  • Develop a national rangeland program in collaboration with all stakeholders, which would include rangeland management plans and actions.
  • Shift from surface to more efficient drip irrigation and other innovative methods to minimize water wastage and promote more efficient use.
  • Account for all water resources through surveys, taking topology-hydrology-water needs studies, assessment methodologies, and designing and installing irrigation schemes.
  • Establish and implement an early warning system to alert farmers on the occurrence of extreme weather events to enable appropriate planning.
  • Develop forest fire management programs.
  • Strengthen the legal and institutional framework to integrate climate change into forestry planning and management.
  • Integrate landscape levels planning into local/regional development plans.
  • Strengthen public awareness and education on forests, their importance and the effects of climate change, and supporting research.
  • Build the capacity of forest managers and local communities to better manage forest resources.
  • Implement demand-side water management strategies to reduce water demand in the domestic, industrial and agriculture sectors.
  • Develop integrated watershed management plans that include risks from climate variability and change through designing and implementing a water tariff structure that encourages water saving and water reuse.
  • Implement pilot initiatives to demonstrate the feasibility of alternative water sources and developing necessary standards and guidelines.
  • Increase the resilience and sustainability of groundwater to climate change in coastal areas by strengthening and enforcing well permits and monitoring.
  • Implement the 2010 Policy Paper for the electricity sector.
  • Apply thermal standards for buildings to improve energy efficiency.
  • Diversify the energy sector.
  • Significant upgrading of existing technologies to achieve lower energy consumption and lower emissions needed.
  • Implement measures to minimize human impacts by reducing or moving sources of urban, industrial and agriculture pollution.
  • Introduce effective early warning systems along the coast for coastal hazards, such as flooding.
  • Develop a potential defense strategy to control sea level rise through soft or hard engineering.
  • Adopt integrated coastal zone management that includes conservation and protection of coastal ecosystems.

Gaps and Needs

  • Research on technology options for adaptation in the water resources and agriculture sectors suitable for Lebanon.
  • Developing science and educational infrastructure and providing targeted research grants to facilitate climate research on a local scale.
  • Developing science and educational infrastructure and providing targeted research grants to facilitate climate research on a local scale.
  • Enhancing capacity for training individuals and research institutions.
  • Lebanon still lacks a comprehensive national monitoring system with a cohesive climate research framework.
  • A technology information network that includes all major stakeholders from the private and public sectors could enhance preparedness and risk management.
  • Enhancing capacity for training individuals and research institutions.
  • Enhancing participatory activities with international observation systems to improve local tools and methods for research into climate change and its impacts on the people of Lebanon.
  • Data availability and accessibility, standardizing inventory systems and encouraging cooperation among research bodies would be beneficial.
  • Decision makers accessing the necessary information to evaluate climate risk and to support short- and long-term risk reduction from climate change in key development sectors.
  • Modernization and reorganization of climate monitoring services to increase data quality and availability.