Country

Kazakhstan

Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Kazakhstan.

Adaptation

In the Republic of Kazakhstan the most important decisions on climate policy are made by the President, the Parliament and the Government. The Ministry of Energy (ME RK) is responsible for climate policy administration in the country and climate negotiations on an international level. In its activity ME RK adheres to the adopted laws and planning documents in accordance with the state planning system. Kazakhstan signed the Paris Agreement on August 2, 2016 and ratified it on December 6, 2016. On September 28, 2015 Kazakhstan announced its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) stating that by 2030 Kazakhstan intends to achieve an unconditional reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at the level of minus 15% from the 1990 baseline. (Seventh National Communication, 2017)

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Comprehensive reconstruction and modernization of irrigation and collector networks and systems and their hydraulic structures;
  • Introduction of modern high-performance, water-saving and energy-saving technologies and irrigation techniques for agricultural crops;
  • Evidence-based crop rotation to increase crop yield;
  • Farming methods for increased soil fertility;
  • Replacement of relatively wet crops with drought-resistant crops;
  • Establishment of systems in pilot areas to test effectiveness of water use measures;
  • Introduce new water saving technologies into practice.
  • Development and improvement of alternative renewable energy sources: wind, solar, small hydropower;
  • Nuclear energy development;
  • Establishment of new hydroelectric power generation facilities and transmission grid construction from currently operating power plants;
  • Increase in energy carrier prices.
  • Countrywide improvement of the technical state of utility and drinking water supply systems and their further upgrade;
  • Further intensification of long-time and seasonal river flow regulation;
  • Improvement of the state water management system efficiency, including enhanced application of integrated water resources management (IWRM) principles;
  • Increased financing of scientific research in the water sector and design in the field of water engineering;
  • Legal framework improvement in terms of water resources management, application of international water law and interstate cooperation with neighboring countries to address transboundary water issues;
  • Desalination of low-, medium-salt and sea water using cutting-edge high-tech and innovative desalination methods;
  • Wider use of fresh groundwater resources where necessary, in a sustainable manner and in combination with surface waters;
  • Safe reuse of sewage and rainwater, recycling and re-sequential water supply.

Gaps and Needs

  • Some applied research on climate change influences on vulnerable sectors is needed. In particular forestry. Until now, the study of climate change influences on Kazakhstan’s forests has been insufficient. 
  • Conduct research on water resources use and regulation.
  • lack of models with higher resolution for projection of extreme events and their impact on economy and human health.
  • Kazakhstan lacks a national strategy (action plan, program, etc.) on climate change. Any measures taken separately to prevent climate change and adapt to it are isolated and inconsistent.
  • The government should elaborate the concrete steps for sectors adaptation to climate depending on the local vulnerability assessment, climate change impact and adaptation measures.
  • The government should justify budget financing for securing implementation of climate strategy.
  • Insufficient personnel qualification, publicity and educational activities in climate-dependent economy sectors;
  • The system of National Emergency Monitoring, including land-space control is insufficiently developed in the country which causes problems in early forecasting and detection of natural hazards as well as taking timely measures for their liquidation.
  • Insufficient justification of weather alerts, overlook of hazardous weather events and lack of reliable early weather forecasts in the country interfere with emergency response efficiency.
  • Lack of data on material damage (in monetary terms) caused to economy sectors by extreme weather events.