Iraq plans to implement adaptation measures to further combat the effects of climate change. Iraq will focus on issues of food, water, and economic security for its citizens. The adaptation focus Iraq's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution falls across sectors including water resources, water treatment, agriculture, ecosystem preservation, health and  tourism.

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors
  • Rehabilitate agriculture and livestock infrastructure.
  • Protect ecosystems from degradation.
  • Adopt crop varieties and plants that can reduce land degradation.
  • Implement mechanisms to improve food security and control the impact of droughts.
  • Rehabilitate and reconstruct water management and monitoring networks.
  • Promote non-conventional water resources, such as wastewater reuse and water harvesting, to increase water supply.
  • Improve water quality and upgrade the water distribution network.
  • Maintain and improve the efficiency of existing pumping stations and sewerage networks, while achieving the required environmental standards for processed water prior to pumping to drainage points.
  • Provide safe drinking water to acutely vulnerable populations.
  • Improve sanitation services to vulnerable areas to avert waterborne diseases.
  • Reconstruct and rehabilitate water treatment and distribution infrastructure.
  • Pilot alternative water systems and technologies.
  • Develop integrated water management systems.
  • Build capacity of senior staff, and train technical staff in updated technology.
  • Promote effective operation and maintenance systems, and establish water quality surveillance systems.
  • Improve the nutritional status of the population by providing technical and logistical support to food safety laboratories, and supporting vitamin, mineral and micronutrient supplementation to vulnerable groups.
  • Promote health and disease prevention programs and activities for health service providers and the community.
  • Implement programs that will lead to the reduction of the number of people without access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation.
  • Increase access to potable water in both urban and rural areas, and improve sanitation services in rural areas.
  • Rehabilitate and restructure the healthcare sector through improved training and access to better technology.
  • Improve government-led emergency response teams through capacity and disaster preparedness training.
Gaps and Needs
  • A national database on natural resources, as well as climate data for research and development, should be established.
  • Most academic institutions lack research capabilities on climate change due to the absence of trained Iraqi professionals in environmental issues. Therefore, environment-related research through the introduction of environmental studies in educational institutions should be encouraged.
  • An effective water monitoring network to ensure water safety and security should be developed.
  • Technical capacity for monitoring, data collection and data management should be developed.
  • Public awareness on the impacts and consequences of climate change should be increased, through awareness building campaigns to facilitate mitigation and adaptation.
  • A regional initiative for sharing information and knowledge about climate change should be established.
  • Institutional capacity building and coordination is needed in order to develop a comprehensive and sustained response to climate risks.
  • Training of policymakers in climate-related issues should be encouraged.
  • International academic collaboration should be encouraged.