Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Iran.

Country Summary

This page presents high-level information for Iran's climate zones and its seasonal cycle for mean temperature and precipitation for the latest climatology, 1991-2020. Climate zone classifications are derived from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which divides climates into five main climate groups divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation sub-group (second letter).  Climate classifications are identified by hovering your mouse over the legend. A narrative overview of Iran's country context and climate is provided following the visualizations.

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, 1991-2020
  • Af
  • Am
  • As/Aw
  • BWh
  • BWk
  • BSh
  • BSk
  • Csa
  • Csb
  • Csc
  • Cwa
  • Cwb
  • Cwc
  • Cfa
  • Cfb
  • Cfc
  • Dsa
  • Dsb
  • Dsc
  • Dsd
  • Dwa
  • Dwb
  • Dwc
  • Dwd
  • Dfa
  • Dfb
  • Dfc
  • Dfd
  • ET
  • EF

The Islamic Republic of Iran is located in the southwest of Asia and lies approximately between 25° and 40° of the North (in latitude) and between 44° and 64° of the East (in longitude). With an area of more than 1.6 million km2, Iran is the second-largest country in the Middle East. The country shares borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Caspian Sea on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, Oman Sea and Persian Gulf on the south and Iraq and Turkey on the west. With a GDP (PPP adjusted) of US$ 929 billion in 2012, Iran’s economy has been ranked as the 17th largest economy in the world. In 2010, the share of service sector, including the government was 55% of GDP. Industrial, agricultural, and oil and gas sectors share of GDP were 22, 14, and 9%, respectively (Iran’s Third National Communication to the UNFCC).

Iran has climatological diversity with three types of climate: 1) dry and semi-dry climate: large parts of internal lands and southern border of Iran have this climate; 2) mountainous climate, which itself is subdivided into two categories of cold and moderate mountainous climate; 3) Caspian climate: a narrow and small area between Caspian Sea and Alborz Mountain Belt with 600-2000 mm annual rain. Iran’s national strategy for climate change which includes mitigation and adaption, as well as the national Plan of Action to combat dust and sand storms will be finalized in the near future. All actions in the three forthcoming national development plans are intended to be in coherence and harmonized with the country's Nationally Determined Contribution.