Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Indonesia.

Impacts Agriculture

Agricultural activities in Indonesia center on five subsectors: annual food crops, estate crops, livestock, forestry, and fisheries. Food crop farming contributes almost 50% to the gross domestic product (GDP) of agriculture and is particularly important on the island of Java, which is home to over 60% of the country’s population, 70% of whom live in rural areas. Rice is the primary crop, while cassava, soybeans, corn, and groundnut are important secondary crops. Estate crops account for approximately 17% of agricultural GDP. As climate change alters precipitation, evaporation, run‐off water, and soil moisture, production of these crops and food security will be severely affected. Past trends indicate a low capacity to adapt to changes in climate. Rising temperatures will increase the incidence and range of pests and, when combined with decreased rainfall and increased demand, higher temperatures will also present new challenges related to water storage or transfer mechanisms.

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.