Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Indonesia.


Indonesia is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. The medium term goal of the national strategy is to reduce risks in all development sectors including agriculture, water, energy security, forestry, maritime and fisheries, health, public service, infrastructure and urban system by 2030. Policies aim at adapting farming to climate change, optimal use of land, water and natural resources, conserving rainwater, developing early warning systems for extreme weather events, protecting coastal zone, making infrastructure more resilient and better urban planning among others. The country aims to take an integrated, landscape-based approach in managing its terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems.

Adaptation Options for Key Sectors

  • Improve data use and management (e.g. development of early El Niño warning systems and expanded use of maps of drought prone areas).
  • Improve farming practices and supporting infrastructure (e.g. development and deployment of more efficient irrigation techniques and infrastructure such as trough, sprinkle, and trickle irrigation).
  • Improve institutional management (e.g. facilitate knowledge exchange on climate science for institutions and small farmer groups).
  • Conduct more research (e.g. reestablish areas that are drought and flood prone and conduct research on drought-resistant seed varieties).
  • Implement public awareness-raising campaign on climate change impacts and adaptation.
  • Incorporate livelihood diversification practices into off-farm activities.
  • Conserve mangroves.
  • Implement programs and policies aimed at reducing deforestation and protecting forests.
  • Develop improved water collection and storage facilities.
  • Invest in both drought-tolerant and salt-tolerant crops.
  • Diversify crops.
  • Improve early El Niño warning systems.
  • Conduct vulnerability assessments of key infrastructure to determine most appropriate measures to deal with future impacts of sea level rise and storm surge.
  • Protect and restore mangroves to protect coastal areas.
  • Build capacity among fishermen and the coastal communities to develop and use early warning systems and apply climate forecast information to daily activities.
  • Pursue integrated coastal zone management practices in local communities.

Gaps and Needs

  • There is need for improved capacity to disseminate and use climate information in an informed and practical way to support adaptation. Currently, 3-4 organizations are equipped to support adaptation projects. Training additional institutions on how to use climate information is vital.
  • Development of effective mechanisms to disseminate climate information and raise awareness on climate change issues is required.
  • Detailed vulnerability assessments need to be conducted in the most vulnerable regions, especially in the south where rainfall is projected to decrease. These are needed to develop appropriate interventions and strategies for adaptation.
  • A well-developed network of experts in Indonesia is actively involved in disaster risk reduction. Yet, joint approaches between adaptation and DRR communities for building resilience against climate change related disasters must be further developed.
  • Strengthen environmental management capacities of local government agencies, particularly in the forestry sector, through decentralization.
  • Take stock of existing adaptation activities in Indonesia. Lessons learned from these experiences would aid in building capacity for future adaptation.
  • Continue to support and develop policies that address urban and rural sanitation and wastewater management, especially in the context of the decentralization process. This includes inter alia development of a national strategy for access to sanitation and wastewater treatment across scales, and plans for environmental, economic, and socially sustainable water and wastewater utilities.
  • Address the institutional and financial constraints that prevent improvement in the monitoring and enforcement of policies and legislation to reduce deforestation. Moreover, decentralization poses new challenges for monitoring and enforcing policies.
  • Improve the mainstreaming of environmental concerns into development policy. In particular, public investment planning and regional planning of land and natural resource management could be better integrated within all relevant environmental areas.
  • Despite being identified as a priority concern, human health is not a main focus of current initiatives.
  • An assessment is required of appropriate locations and information needs to provide early warnings on floods in the western region of Indonesia and on droughts in the dry zones in some eastern provinces which have a long history of coping with recurring floods and droughts.
  • A system for monitoring fire risks, including implementing an early warning system, is required.
  • Sea levels need to be monitored across the Indonesian archipelago.