Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting India.

Impacts Water

India’s main water sources consist of precipitation on the Indian territory and flows, many trans-boundary, originating in neighboring mountain regions. Many of the flows originating in the Himalayas are fed by glacier melt water. Glaciers serve to smooth flows, providing a reliable water source during the dry season. As such, the potential loss of glaciers as a result of climate changes and warming may be a significant threat to water resources in India. Precipitation over a large part of India is concentrated in the monsoon season during June to September/October. The unreliability of precipitation, dynamics of social vulnerability, and proliferation of chronically water scarce regions mean that an estimated 180 million people are already living in chronic (year-round) and severe water scarcity. The irrigation sector accounts for 83% of India’s national fresh water consumption. Changes in key climate variables, namely, temperature, precipitation, and humidity, may have significant long-term implications for the quality and quantity of water for agricultural use.

This section allows you to gain insights into climate change impacts on hydrological statistics based on climate future scenarios.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.