Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting India.

Impacts Agriculture

Nearly two-third of India’s population depends directly or indirectly on the agricultural sector for their livelihoods. With about 60% of the cultivated area being rain-fed agriculture, production is strongly influenced by climate variability and particularly the behavior of the south-west monsoon. The food and nutritional security of India currently depends on the production of cereals, primarily wheat and rice. Almost one third of India’s land area is utilized for cereal production, generating around 300 million tonnes per year as of 2016. The general trend in precipitation seen in climate models, of fewer wet days, more intense extreme events, and an increase in the number of very hot days is likely to have a negative impact on Indian food security. Estimates between models vary greatly, but some models reported by the FAO (2015) indicate large deficits in India’s ability to meet internal demand for cereals, even on lower emissions pathways. 

This section provides insights into the climate change impacts on agricultural productivity indicators and the trends in agriculture related socio-economic indicators.


Data presented under Historical Climate Conditions are reanalysis products derived from ERA5-Land data. ERA5-Land is a global land-surface dataset at 9 km resolution, consistent with atmospheric data from the ERA5 reanalysis from 1950 onward. Climate reanalyses combine past observations with models to generate consistent time series of multiple climate variables. They provide a comprehensive description of the observed climate as it has evolved during recent decades, on 3D grids at sub-daily intervals. 

This data has been collected, aggregated and processed by the Climate Resilience Cluster of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD) initiative.

% change of crop yield projections
< -60% > 80%
« Click on the map to view site-specific crop data.